From Stage to Page - Medieval and Renaissance Drama
Lucidus and Dubius
Interroga patres tuos et dicent tibi. f.54v
LUCIDUS. The formyst fadere þat formed 3ou all,
the wytt and þe wysdom of his sonne dere,
þe lore of þe Holy Goste which y call
to marke þe matere to 3our mynde which 3e shul heere.
5 My name is Doctour Lucidus, a doctour of þe lawe,
to 3ou hidere y come, the sothe for to say,
questions to asoyle þat be to men vnknawe.
Herkene, þer-fore, good sires, feyre y 3ou pray.
A doctour of dyuynete ful wyde am y knowe.
10 Clerely kan y answere to questiouns of dowte,
þat beth now on þe peple wonderly sowe,
and mevith hem at hire maungery whan þei ben on a rowte.
But what, what!
Y know hem euerychon;
15 Y dowte neuere oon.
Some man may preue;
there-fore wolde y
þat some man boldely
a questioun wolde meve.
20 DUBIUS. A, God the safe, Doctour gent,
myn owen maister verament,
y know 3ou by þe speche.
LUCIDUS. Whi so, childe? What is þi name?
DUBIUS. Dubius, sire, all in game,
25 þat 3e were wonte to teche.
LUCIDUS. What, is þi name Dubius?
DUBIUS. 3e, syr, for sothe y-wis. f.55r
LUCIDUS. Dubius is douteful for to say;
þis is a queynte name.
30 DUBIUS. So y am doutful, in good fay;
there-of y bere the fame.
LUCIDUS. Dubius, sith þou were my clerk,
sey where þou dwellest nowthe.
DUBIUS. With euery man on his werk
35 Dubius is ful kowthe.
And, sothe for to telle,
spare y nelle;
some-what y dwelle
with religion in celle,
40 jn cite, town, vplonde, in sothe;
y haue dwellid thare
with kyngis and lordis bothe,
to wite, bothe quid and quare.
And y haue made on this londe
45 a newe curtesy y-fonde,
that whan men beth y-sette
and are serued at hire mette
y bringe forth quare and quid
and serue hem there-with,
50 that is to say, whi and what,
and so eche man spekith of þat;
so þat a burel sleve
with-oute ony mannys leve,
and brynge forth quid and quare,
55 and preest and clerk he wyl nat spare,
and meve so hye such a question
þan he confoundith his reson;
and so þurgh þe answere of what and why
bothe fallen in-to heresy.
60 LUCIDUS. On heresy, God forbede!
Speke thy wordis softe.
DUBIUS. 3is, sir, so God me spede, f.55v
openly and ofte.
LUCIDUS. Than it comyth thurgh Dubius mevynge?
65 DUBIUS. 3e, syr, that is no lesynge;
jt is myn owen crafte.
LUCIDUS. Y pray the, herdist þou in contre
men suche questiones meve?
DUBIUS. Syr, y wyl 3ou telle eche worde
70 and 3e wyl 3eve me leve.
LUCIDUS. Sey on, Dubius, for thy fay.
DUB[I]US. Y wyl, maister, with-oute delay
3oure wytte wyl y preue.
The laste question is this
75 þat y herde meved y-wis:
sith God made al thynge of no3t
and he was ere the world were wro3t,
jt semyth be-fore the worldis makynge
that he ledde a solitary levynge.
80 LUCIDUS. Nay, alone my3t he nat be.
Take hede and thou shalt se:
a carpontere þat shal make a byldynge
he caste it first in his thynkynge,
and erste than he make his gynne
85 on his kun
So God in for-knowynge hadde
al creaturis ere he hem made,
so they with God in forknowynge
ere than they had outwarde beynge.
90 Thus God alone my3t nat be;
by this example þou maist se.
DUBIUS. 3it a question y aske of the:
whi made God alle creaturis?
LUCIDUS. For there sholde suche thynge be f.56r
95 that sholde reseyue of his goodnys.
DUBIUS. Sith God made the first man
that men seith was Adam,
telle alle men fre and bonde,
made God Adam with his honde?
100 LUCIDUS. Nay, with his worde he made hym
Out of the see slym,
þat euery man bothe more and lasse
sholde thynke hou brotil he is of kende,
and how he shal here hennys passe,
105 as wynde or worde, and make an ende.
DUBIUS. Why made he hym of so foule a matere?
LUCIDUS. To shame with Lucyfer,
that he þat was made of so foule a thynge
sholde be his overlynge,
110 and þat man sholde sitte in ioye an hye
Fro[m] the which he fille and flye.
DUBIUS. 3it an-other questyon y kan:
where-of made God Eve?
LUCIDUS. Of Adamys flessh and boon,
115 as we holy beleve.
DUBIUS. Why was she nat made and bore
of the erthe as Adam was a-fore?
LUCIDUS. Sir, the skyle is this and þe poynte:
that as thei were oo flessh and boon
120 they sholde be on euery ioynte
jn loue and herte oon and oon;
and eche man al-so and his wyf,
sith thei be oo flessh and blood,
loue sholde lette hem fro stryf f.56v
125 and make hem of oo wylle and mode.
DUBIUS. Why made nat God Adam so
þat he ne my3t haue do no synne?
Me semyth it had be wel y-do
that euery man sholde heuen wynne.
130 LUCIDUS. Syr, God made Adam on suche manere
þat he was fre of worke and wylle,
and eche of his after-comere
to do whethere they wolde, good or ylle.
So man stode on his fre wyll
135 to chese what he wolde do,
and as his werke is good or ylle,
so muste his mede be there-to:
that if he wolde euel forsake,
than muste Goodnes his mede aquyte;
140 and if he wylle to euel take,
his owen wylle he mote it wyte.
DUBIUS. 3it telle here be-fore vs alle
o thynge that y shal aske of the:
sith Adam wolde in synne falle,
145 why suffred God hym temptid be?
LUCIDUS. God suffred for this entent,
that sith Adam wolde in synne falle,
Crist, Godis sonne verament,
shold make vs fre þat so were thralle;
150 with his deth after on the tre
he thou3t he sholde by mankynne,
and there-fore Adam suffred he
to tempted be and falle in synne.
DUBIUS. Nay, par-de!
155 God is ri3t and ri3tfulnesse,
and wolde þat no wrong were done. f.57r
That were wronge and al a-mys
to suffre sle his owen sone,
and namly for man ful of synne
160 to suffre an jnnocent to dey and spylle;
God wolde no such worke begynne;
he may noon don in wronge ne wylle.
LUCIDUS. A, syre!
God suffred his sonne man be dede,
165 thurgh charite, loue, and þat was ry3t,
to put a-wey man fro the quede,
for noon othere it do my3t.
And ri3tful loue and resoun wolde
þat Goddis sonne the Feende shold stroy,
170 for othere was of no my3t so bolde
that of the Feende my3t haue maystry;
and as the Feende had alle men slawe
thurgh the venym of his envy,
so Crist the Feend adoun sholde thrawe
175 and 3eue man lyf whan he sholde dey.
DUBIUS. Now, good syr, gentyl and wyse,
how long was Adam and Eve in paradyse?
LUCIDUS. vij houris thei were in paradyse,
vij houris and no moo,
180 and for an appel of litel pryse
they were put out bothe twoo.
The thirde houre after Adamys makynge
Adam 3af alle beestis hire name;
the sixthe houre, with-oute lesynge
185 was made Eve, the first dame;
and anoon of the appel she ete,
and to trespace she be-gan; f.57v
and tho she was put oute by þe heed,
bothe she and eke Adam.
190 DUBIUS. Whi, whi was the appel so worthy
þat alle men there-fore sholde deed be?
A man may haue a pek for a peny!
Me semyth it may nat so be.
LUCIDUS. Nay, nat for the applis worthynes,
195 but for his vnbuxumnes,
that he wolde of the appel note
þat God had hem bothe forbode.
There-fore euery seruaunt, as y rede,
sholde obeye his souereyne,
200 on alle goodnes to haue his mede
and to avoyde helle peyne.
DUBIUS. Lorde, syr, what thynge is paradyse,
and what place may it be?
LUCIDUS. Syr, a place of al delyte it is.
205 Herkene and y wyl tellen the.
Jt is a place grene and swete,
of spysis, trees, and of flouris,
with-oute hungere, colde, or hete,
with-oute tempest or shouris;
210 ryveris rennynge, songe ful swete,
mirthe, ioy with-oute ende,
lyf and helthe shul euer mete,
age and seeknes shul thennys wende.
There is froyt folke with to fede,
215 lusty to mete for all seeknes;
þere is no sorowe, doute, ne drede;
euerlastynge lyf and all goodnes.
DUBIUS. Now that was a mery place! f.58r
And y had be there þat Adam was
220 y wolde nat haue go thenne;
for he is ri3t a grete foole
þat is in so mery an hoole
and holdith hym nat þer-inne.
But sir, sire, was Adam sory for his trespas?
225 LUCIDUS. 3e, forsothe, that he was,
and for his trespas sake
he wolde fayne amendis make.
DUBIUS. Now sith God was ful of all goodnes,
of mercy and grace to men ful of synne,
230 and Adam was sory of his wykkednes,
why ne had God saued hym?
Lucifer was put from heuen
for no dedly synne þat he wro3t,
235 but for he thought to be even
to God with-in on his tho3t.
Than sith God dampned an angel
for synne of pryde only in thou3t,
he my3t nat be ri3tful dome wel
240 safe Adam þat synne out wro3t.
DUBIUS. How may God worshiped be
to se his handworke dampned so?
A man is liche God, parde:
how may he suffre hym in wo?
245 LUCIDUS. Thou mevest a question of pite,
but herkene and y wyl telle the.
A childe that were of seruyse feyre
and had a fader stronge and riche, f.58v
if his fader wolde make hym his eyre
250 and in herte loued hym myche,
on case this childe wolde his fader spyse,
his lawes, his loue, his heestis forsake,
it muste plese his fader in al wyse
his heritage from hym take.
255 So ho forsokeþ Goddis lawe,
though he be liche God verament,
resoun wyl þat he be thrawe
fro blys in-to turment;
and alle ry3tfulnesse
260 is plesaunt to God and alle his goodnesse.
DUBIUS. A, a, y se wel be thy menynge
a man muste euer God plese.
LUCIDUS. 3e, þat is no lesynge,
or ellis he shal his heritage lese.
265 DUBIUS. Good sire, telle for 3oure honoure,
how longe was Lucifer in heuen?
LUCIDUS. Forsothe, nat fullich an houre
that he ne fylle then.
DUBIUS. Y pray 3ou, syr, what synne had he do ought?
270 LUCIDUS. Non othere but that he was proude in thou3t,
thynkyng to haue a better state
than God had sette hym ate.
And for þat thou3t, y 3ou telle,
þat angel was caste to helle,
275 and with hym fylle as many mo
as consentid to pride al-so.
þere-for lete no man be proude
jn hert with-in ne in worke with-oute.
DUBIUS. What, fille þey alle to helle in-fere? f.59r
280 LUCIDUS. Nay syr, some dwellith amonge vs here,
to preve men in hire levynge
and knowe what þat men wyl do
if thei may fro blys men brynge
and carye hem to helle wo.
285 DUBIUS. Where-to so, where-to so?
What helpith it þe Feend do so,
to brynge men to fyre and payne?
Me semyth they workith hemself wo:
his worke may nat avayle thayme.
290 Whi, what is the Feende þe better at ese
þat a man is in payne pitte
to make sorowe and payne euer mare?
Me semyth it is a lewde wytte.
He is worthi euel to fare
295 that loueth to make sorowe and care.
LUCIDUS. Thus may y answere on this manere.
O cause is that he ne wolde
þat man sholde come to heuen clere
there as he haue be sholde,
300 for it were to hym gretter paynynge
than al the paynes þat he my3t bere
to se man þat was so foul a thynge
come to blysse where he was ere;
and for that were to hym more confusion
305 he sesith neuer fro temptacion.
An-other resoun is this:
for he is the porter of helle
and turmentith soulis y-wis
þat for synne there doth dwelle,
310 as ry3t wyl, as y rede, f.59v
þat wykkednes wyl haue a wykked mede.
And so for voydynge of his shame,
and for to do his office a-ryght,
he brengith euer men in blame
315 with al his powere day and nyght.
Y come neuer in no place
þat me be-happed no such grace
that suche a boy, so 3onge a thynge,
320 put to me such aposynge.
DUBIUS. Petir, þou madist ry3t now bostynge,
and seidest þou woldist answere to al thynge.
þou shalt knowe þat þou comyst hider to rathe
here to answere or to apose,
325 for thou shalt fynde a childe of Bathe
to caste a question at thy nose.
And y thanke God y fynde þe here.
LUCIDUS. Why so, bew syre?
DUBIUS. Telle why y kan,
330 for þou arte the same man,
for thou tawghtis me fewe 3ere.
Y know him by the grete hode;
he wolde me bete as he were wode,
and make my buttokis sore.
335 But here
with sputynge y wyl meself a-wreche.
Y haue ordeyned alle there-fore.
LUCIDUS. Syr, y dede but as resoun ys:
y bete the for thou were dubius,
340 betwene ernest and game.
DUBIUS. Mary, me semed þou dedist a-mys,
for euery clerk is dubius; f.60r
y kowde the Goddis grame.
LUCIDUS. A, syr, y come nat hider for to chide.
345 DUBIUS. No, thou hast meved a good borde.
Y wyl the shame of thi worde
and thou wylte a-byde.
LUCIDUS. Why, what kanste thou say?
DUBIUS. Y wyl aske a question with-out delay
350 to reproue thi pride.
Proprio filio suo non pepersit Deus, sed pro nobis
omnibus tradidit illum.
God wolde that his sonne Ihesus
for man deed be sholde.
Than y wolde wyte what dede Iudas a-mys
that hym be-tray wolde;
355 for, sith God wolde þat he sholde be deed,
and Iudas dede the same,
it semyth thei wro3t by oo reed;
and Iudas was nat to blame,
for there may no man spylle
360 that fulfyllith Goddis wylle.
LUCIDUS. Nay, nay, Goddis workis and Iudas
beth nat liche in oo case,
for God toke his sonne man to safe
for charite and loue on alle wyse,
365 and Iudas hym solde sylver to haue
only for fals couetyse.
Pater filium caritate, Judas cupiditate
filium Dei tradidit. Hec Doctor Subtilis
et Magister Sentenciarum.
DUBIUS. 3it answere onys to me f.60v
here openly and anon:
whi was his crosse made of tre
370 more than of yren and of stoon?
LUCIDUS. A, wel maist thou hote Dubius!
This was þe cause, y telle the.
For al the sorowe and the wrake
first to man of a tre
375 whan Adam wolde þe appel take,
therefore God deyde vpon a tre
and thurgh a tre amendis wolde make;
and this is the skyle, parde,
whi the crosse of tre was shape.
Vt qui in ligno vicerat, in ligno
quoque vinceretur, per Christum dominum nostrum.
380 DUBIUS. Whan bought Crist the soulis of man,
sith the Feend hem had in warde?
To whom paide Crist his ranisoun?
This astonyeth my wytt ful harde.
LUCIDUS. Forsothe, to the Fader of Heuen.
385 He shed his blood ful leef and dere
for the soulis on helle be-nethen,
to haue hem out of helle powere,
for that iaper Lucifer
nas nat but his gayler
390 to turment hem ofte,
and the soulis echon
they were pr
to God þat sitteth on lofte.
Hec Magister Sentenciarum.
DUBIUS. Y pray the, syr, 3it tel me this.
395 Was Cristis deth to his fader so precious
that it my3t all men qwyte?
LUCIDUS. The worthynes of Cristis dethe
no man that hath brethe f.61r
may it telle or wryte.
400 DUBIUS. Hou? Exsample lete me se.
LUCIDUS. Than take good hede and herkene to me.
And God stode now the be-fore,
that made al this world of no3t,
and thou knewe it in thyn herte more
405 that it were he þat al hath wro3t,
than if one wolde sey to the,
"Sle this man here the be-fore,
or ellis sore, parde,
al this wo(r)lde shal be lore"
410 woldist thou than Criste sle
and thou knewest þat he were that?
DUBIUS. Crist forbede it me
that eny man shold do that.
LUCIDUS. Telle me whi,
415 and whi þou noldist hym sle.
DUBIUS. For Cristis lyf is more worthi
than a thousand worldis may be,
for of him comyth lyf and leuynge
and eche thynge hath his beynge.
420 LUCIDUS. For sothe tha[n] as precious was his deyinge,
that was al mannys begynnynge.
DUBIUS. 3it thou shalt ben apposed onys more.
Whi wolde Crist ben y-bore
more of a mayde than of an-othere woman?
425 LUCIDUS. If y were preide ther-to answere y ka[n] f.61v
on foure maners whi God makith man:
first of the erthe as God made Adam;
the secunde maner of man alone,
and so of Adam come Eve;
430 the thirde maner of mannys mone,
as whan wommen 3eueth hem leeve;
the ferthe manere God wolde man make
of clene mayde with-oute ore,
as whan he dede manhod take
435 and for man a mayde was bore.
DUBIUS. 3e, though thou be fel and sly
3it shalt thou nat askape so,
for 3it thou tellist me nat whi
Criste wolde be bore so.
440 LUCIDUS. A, douteful Dubius, doutful Dubius!
The cause there-of is this.
The first maide þat euer was
was Eve, Adamys wyf.
Sche wrou3t the first trespas
445 and made al oure wo and stryf;
and as thurgh a mayde deth come in
and al men were lore,
Crist so wolde be Mary Virgyn
alle the world restore.
450 DUBIUS. Now in good fey, Lucidus,
y hoped whan y come hider y-wys--
and 3it y thynke for to asay--
to haue do the shame.
LUCIDUS. Do on, y the pray;
455 begynne, on G(o)ddis name.
DUBIUS. By the rode, and y wyl begynne! f.62r
Sith Crist was with-out synne
y wolde wyte why
that he wolde take deth ought.
460 Me semyth it helpith hym noght;
neyther grace he had ther-by,
for he was ful of grace ynough.
LUCIDUS. A, Dubius, Dubius, many questions hast thou
that beth sotel and sly.
465 For his nede ry3t no3t,
but for thre causis it was wro3t,
that y wyl here shewy.
For water hath propertees thre,
and what they beth y tel hem the.
470 Jt makith thyngis clene,
þat is the fyrst;
the secunde is wel sene
that it quenchith a mannys thyrst;
jt clensith an ymage that is foule.
475 DUBIUS. That knowyth euery foole.
LUCIDUS. Syr, suffre me speke my lust.
So the grace of the Holy Gost
whan a childe takith his baptem,
jt clensith his synne most
480 that of birthe come to hym.
The first of soule with-ynne,
it quenchith it with Goddis worde.
The ymage of God defouled with synne,
it clensith it bothe ende and orde.
485 DUBIUS. 3it a question to thyn heed; f.62v
hou longe lay Crist deed?
That y wolde thou toldest me.
LUCIDUS. To speke so angerly it is no nede,
for y speke esely, parde.
490 Syr, fourty owris and no mo.
DUBIUS. Good syr, what betokenyth tho?
LUCIDUS. On fourty owris beth four sithis ten;
that betokeneth the commaundement
þe foure partis of the world y-do to hem.
495 Jt meneth non other in this entent:
that the foure partis of the world aboute
shold to the ten heestis aloute.
DUBIUS. 3it thou shalt be ones a-waked.
Was Crist leyde in his tombe al naked?
500 LUCIDUS. 3e, syr, that he was.
DUBIUS. Than wolde y wyte in this cas
how come he to clothis so sone.
LUCIDUS. Sir, he is almy3ty and euer was,
and the eyre he turned anone
505 jn-to clothis thurgh his my3t,
that many men them did se;
and whan he styed to heuen bry3t
DUBIUS. O thynge turbelith moche my thought:
510 how olde was Criste er that he taught?
LUCIDUS. Syr, thirti 3eere olde,
Crist than he wolde teche.
To teche þat no man sholde be bolde
with-in þat age for to preche.
515 DUBIUS. Of prechynge y wolde somwhat heere f.63r
as prelatis and preestis sholde preche,
but it sett my herte on fyre,
for they do nat as they teche.
But, sir, what mede shul suche craue?
520 LUCIDUS. Sir, ther-to an answere thou shalt haue.
He that oo worde prechith wel
and doth euel hymself,
he is liche a bry3t candel
that li3tith to men and wastith hymself.
525 And some nother leueth wel
nother al-so techith wel,
nother be wordis nother be werke;
they be liche helle smoke
þat strangelith mannys syght and throte
530 and brengith men in-to helle derke.
DUBIUS. Lorde, oo thynge fayne y wolde wyte:
sith good and euel dothe masse synge,
whether the sacrament made of suche
be as good on alle thynge
535 as of hem that leueth wel.
LUCIDUS. 3e, forsothe, euerydel.
As good it is of hym þat is no3t
as of a preest þat is ou3t,
for no prestis goodnesse
540 nothere no prestis wykkednesse
may it apeyre ne amende.
DUBIUS. Telle me that to the ende.
LUCIDUS. Take hede to me,
and be example þou shalt se.
545 And the sunne shyne ful clere
vp-on a dongehell or a gonge,
or vp-on as feyre a thyng here f.63v
as eny ma[n] may telle with tonge,
nother the gongis fouleness
550 nothir this thingis feyrnesse
ne may þe same apeire ne amende.
DUBIUS. This is sothe, syr, verament.
LUCIDUS. Ne more may a prestis goodnesse
nother the prestis wikkedness
555 do to the sacrament.
DUBIUS. 3e, 3e, y wolde þat þou woldist telle me:
than sith þe sacrament is so good,
and is Cristis flessh and blood,
and in no wyse may euel be,
560 hou may so good a thynge
be cause of a mannys dampnynge?
þat y pray þe telle me,
for y haue herde sey often-tyme
þat a man of euel lyue
565 is dampned if he it take.
LUCIDUS. 3e, that is nat for þe sacramentis sake.
Bonum non solum participanti prodest set eciam obest si contra
interdictum ab eo accipitur in quo non debet.
DUBIUS. Thou pratelist Latyn faste.
Mary, y trow þou be agaste,
or ellis þou kanst nat at laste,
570 y trowe, answere here-to.
LUCIDUS. A, syr, 3e be hasty to and to.
Syr, þurgh al paradis wyde and brode
al the froyt was ri3t goode,
and profitable to man ynough;
575 but whan Adam þer-of toke
a3ens Goddis forbode, f.64r
for his inobedyens hymself slough.
So he þat is in synne wrapped,
he is to God inobedyent;
580 than shal he be dampned for þat
whan he reseyueth the sacrament.
Good Dubius, good brothere,
bi this exsample know þat othere.
DUBIUS. If a preest be of euel leuynge
585 that hath cure and soulis to kepe,
shal men be to hym obeyshynge?
That wolde y fayne wete.
LUCIDUS. Al-þough they be of no3t levynge
and hire hestis bi Goddis lawe,
590 thou shalt obeye to hire seyinge;
and nat only to hem of a strawe,
but to God that sittith a-boue
thou shalt obey with herte and loue.
Super cathedram Moysi sederunt scribe et Pharisei. Omnia ergo
quecumque dixerint vobis facite. Dicunt enim bonum suple eciam
non faciunt. Magis obedire Deo quam hominibus.
DUBIUS. But 3it answere ones to me.
595 And a prest be bounde with synne,
how sholde he asoyle me or the
whan he is depper than we there-jnne?
For and y were bounde faste and close
þat y my3t nat meve in no behalf,
600 hou sholde y make an-other man lose
that were as faste as y myself?
LUCIDUS. Syr, euery prest that hath cure,
non outake what euer he be,
and he stonde nat in open censure f.64v
605 than stondith it thus, as y telle the.
And it be preued y-wys,
be he neuer so cursed a wrecche,
nat open but alle preve,
he may asoyle by þe office of þe cherche,
610 and Criste hym soyleth and nat he.
Non enim ipse, Christus per eorum officium ligat et soluit.
Hec Lucidarius siue L[u]men Laycorum.
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Proper Citation: Lucidus and Dubius. At From Stage to Page - Medieval and Renaissance Drama. NeCastro, Gerard, ed. http://www.umm.maine.edu/faculty/necastro/drama. Date Visited.